Монологи на английском языке с текстом и переводом. №47. Тема: 1. Абсолютная монархия. 2. Солнце. 3. Соль.

We've been talking about governments. Last time, we started talking about monarchies. We made a list of kings and queens, remember? Well, today I am going to introduce you to one type of monarchy, an absolute monarchy. The monarch, that is the king or queen, has complete control in an absolute monarchy. The state may have a constitution. However, the king or queen can overrule the constitution at any time.
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In today's world, this type of a monarchy exists where education and communication are restricted. Examples are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Swaziland. So, to repeat, in an absolute monarchy the monarch has absolute power over the people. The king or queen can allow constitutional rights to the people or terminate those rights at any time. Most of the wealth in these monarchies is held by just a few people.
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How old is the sun? That is a question that scientists have asked for a long time. To be honest, we don't know exactly. Throughout history, scientists have used different methods to calculate the sun's age. The current method to calculate the sun's age involves measuring the speed at which the sun radiates energy. So we have all this heat coming from the sun.
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Scientists try to measure the heat coming each second. As the sun gets older, it sends out more energy. The sun gives off more heat at a faster rate, so scientists measure the change in energy - the difference between a long time ago and now to figure out the sun's age. The current calculation is that the sun is 4.6 billion years old.
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All water contains a certain amount of salt. Some water has little salt content, like rainwater. Other water has a lot of salt content, like the water in the ocean. Of course, ocean water is much saltier than the water in a lake. Scientists have determined that ocean water is more than 200 times saltier than normal lake water.
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Scientists have also determined how much salt there is in the oceans. They found that there is enough salt dissolved in ocean water to cover all of the Earth. In fact, the salt could bury all the land on Earth at a depth of 500 feet thick! Five-hundred feet is just over 150 meters. That's a lot of salt! Let's compare that with lake salt.
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