Монологи на английском языке с текстом и переводом. №66. Тема: Общение животных и людей.

OK, class, today we're talking about animal communication. How do animals communicate with each other? How is animal communication different than human communication? These are the two major questions we'll delve into. From the reading I assigned you, you all should know that a wide range of animal behavior can be viewed as communication.
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Also, umm, a wide range of animals, even very small ones like single-celled protozoa can communicate. How do animals communicate? First, they communicate by touch. Soft touches show tenderness, and violence shows anger, just like in humans. What else? Well, they use body language, too - gestures with various body parts, like legs, tails, ears, whatever.
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For example, a bear might stand on its hind legs to show aggression, or a wolf might lie on its back to show submission. Umm, there are also facial expressions. For example, lions and wolves snarl by curling their lips to expose large teeth. Some animals use visual signals, such as the, uh, the movement of feathers.
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Male birds often create an attractive display of feathers to attract a mate. And, of course, there is sound. Many of the sounds animals use to communicate are very familiar to us - like a lion's roar or a cat's purr. So, animals can communicate with each other in much the same way that people do - through sound, sight, touch, and body language.
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Ok, next we'll ask the question "How is animal communication different than human communication?" I'll let you guys try to answer that. Anyone have an idea?
Yeah, well, umm. Animals can't talk. Well, I guess parrots can talk, but it's not the same, right?
Good. That's exactly right. We've seen that animals can use many of the same techniques as us, but they can't talk.
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Hmm, most researchers agree that animal communication is not as complex or expressive as human language. Sure, parrots can mimic the sounds of human language, but they can't match its grammar and complexity. For example, they can't express abstract ideas, such as future or past events. Another difference is that animal language seems innate while human language is learned.
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For example, a wolf raised in the wild will still understand the body language of a wolf raised in a zoo or as a pet - they don't need to learn the same language. As we know, people raised in one country may have a language completely different from and not understandable to people in another. To communicate with one another, people have to learn the same language.
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