Монологи на английском языке с текстом и переводом. №70. Тема: Исаак Ньютон и Всеобщий закон тяготения.

Isaac Newton was born in 1642. His father had died before he was born and he and his mother were left in poverty on the family farm. No one guessed he would become a genius. Newton was a solitary child who liked to create games and play them alone. At ten, he left home to go to public school where he amused himself making things like windmills and kites. Newton even made clocks that could run on water power.
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He was quite the inventor. But he also wrote poetry and he drew - often on the wall of his bedroom! Clearly, Newton was no ordinary child, building things like windmills and clocks, but being artistic as well. Newton eventually went to study at Trinity College in Cambridge and became well known for the fact that his mathematical knowledge often proved greater than that of his professors.
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However, the College closed during England's great plague of 1665, and Newton returned to the farm where he would often spend all day thinking about the concept of gravity. It was during this time that Newton invented a new type of microscope and a new kind of mathematics, calculus. But his first love remained pondering the workings of gravity.
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Newton had the idea that the moon is caught between two forces; one that pulls it toward earth, gravity, and another that propels it away from earth, centrifugal force. Newton said that the moon is pulled in opposite directions by these two forces, gravity and centrifugal force, and these forces hold the moon so that it can neither move toward nor away from the earth.
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He explained that as a result, it moves around the earth in a curved path. So the force of gravity toward the earth balances the centrifugal force away from the earth. The moon is stuck moving in a circular orbit around the earth. A simple experiment with a ball and string will help you understand this.
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Tie some string to a ball and whirl it in the air around you. You will feel the ball being pulled away from you by the centrifugal force, but your hold on the string will operate like the force of gravity and hold the ball so it moves in a circle around you.
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Newton applied this idea to the whole universe and reasoned that in the same way the earth holds the moon in a curved orbit, the gravitational pull of the sun holds the earth and all the other planets in their orbits. This is called the Universal Law of Gravitation.
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