Монологи на английском языке с текстом и переводом. №72. Тема: Создание компьютерной программы.

Yesterday we talked about different kinds of computers. For example we mentioned that some computers are "desktop" models. Other computers are called "laptops." When we talk about different kinds of computers, we are really talking about computer hardware. The hardware, of course, is the physical machine itself.
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The real question is, "What makes a computer useful or beneficial?" Or put in a different way, "Why does a person use a computer?" The answer to these questions is that a computer is only useful to a person if it has the right programs. So today, I'll concentrate this lecture on computer programs. Computer programs are often called software. Software is what people use a computer for.
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Let's begin with how a computer program is made. The first step in making a computer program is deciding what you need the program to do. That is, there must be a reason to make the program. Let's use a calculator program as an easy example. Of course, we use calculators very often. For that reason, it would be helpful to have a calculator on the computer.
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So once we decide that we need a program that will work as a calculator, we must begin to create that program. The next step, then, is for a person - specifically a computer programmer - to write the program. The programmer will type a "code" for the computer to read. This code will tell the computer how to operate as a calculator.
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The code instructs the computer what to do with input from the user. Once the programmer has written the code, he or she must test it. If the test shows that the program works, the programmer's job is done. If the program does not work, the programmer must make changes. The programmer retests the program until it works properly. In addition, the programmer may take another step.
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The programmer may realize that the program needs to have more functions. In the case of our calculator, perhaps the user will need scientific equation functions. So the programmer will go back and write more code so that the program will have additional functions. Once the program is complete, it is ready to be installed on other computers. At this point, many people can begin to use the program.
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