Монологи на английском языке с текстом и переводом. №74. Тема: Различное дыхание у животных.

Breathing is a process essential to the life of all many-celled animals. This process allows animals to move oxygen through their bodies to organs and tissues and to release carbon dioxide from their bodies. Whether they live in water, underground, in nests, mountains, or lowlands, animals are always breathing.
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The percentage of oxygen in water is far less than that in the air, so animals that live in water must work a lot harder to take in enough oxygen. For example, a trout may spend 20 percent of its energy to move water around its gills in order to get enough oxygen. On the other hand, a buffalo may only spend 2 percent of its energy breathing to get enough oxygen.
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Because there is more oxygen in the air than in the water, the buffalo expends less energy to get the oxygen it needs. Fish do have one advantage over land animals though. Land animals have to produce special liquids to keep their breathing membranes moist. If they aren't moist, gases can't be exchanged across the membranes. Fish have no problem keeping their breathing membranes moist.
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In lower, that is, simple animals, gases are taken in and expelled directly via a moist surface membrane. Think of it as worms breathing through their skin rather than through noses. For example, earthworms have a thin body wall that they can get oxygen through. In the case of insects, they have air ducts to take in oxygen. Fish have gills, and people have lungs.
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Complex animals, including humans, dogs, horses, pigs and so on, have a rather complex breathing process. In this process, the exchange of gases takes place across membranes in the lungs. Air is taken into and expelled from the lungs by the rhythmic mechanical exercise of breathing. Let's look at the cycle of breathing to see how this works.
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First, oxygen-poor, carbon dioxide-rich blood from the right side of the heart is pumped to the lungs. This blood flows through the small blood vessels that surround tiny air sacs in the lungs. Here, the oxygen crosses the moist respiratory membrane in the sacs and enters the blood.
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At the same time, carbon dioxide moves from the blood across the membrane and into the lung. This carbon dioxide is expelled from the body by breathing out. Finally, the oxygen-rich blood then returns to the left side of the heart. From there, it is pumped throughout the body and into the tissues where it is needed.
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