Монологи на английском языке с текстом и переводом. №76. Тема: Карл Маркс и "Капитал".

Karl Marx was born in 1818. He was an influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer. While Marx was a student at university in Berlin, university authorities were expelling students for holding revolutionary ideas - ideas that were challenging to the rulers of that time.
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As a result, Marx decided he no longer wanted to aim for an academic career and became a political activist instead. He moved to Paris in 1843 and began writing papers to promote democracy and to end poverty. He wrote a paper which was so revolutionary, so challenging to the established political order, that it had to be smuggled back into Germany.
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Marx pointed out that throughout history the haves and have nots - that is, the rich and the poor - had fought each other for control of resources such as food, shelter, and money. He stressed that over time, the rich had won this battle, factory owners, bankers and so on, had become rich by exploiting - using - the industrial workers. The workers had nothing to sell but their labor and so they remained poor.
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Marx believed that workers all over the world had a lot in common and that one day workers would realize that without them - if the rich didn't have the poor working for them - nothing in society would work. He was convinced that once the workers realized this, they would then form organizations, rise up, and overthrow the rich and powerful people in society.
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Marx and his colleague Freidrich Engels wrote down these ideas in the Communist Manifesto - a book which predicted that one day, under a communist system, people would no longer be exploited and have to fight over resources. Almost immediately after this work was completed, revolution broke out in Europe.
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The uprisings were brutally suppressed by the rulers across Europe, and Marx had to escape to London where he remained in exile for the rest of his life. After the revolutionary wave of 1848 subsided, Marx turned his attention to writing a detailed analysis of what was wrong with capitalism, the system that, in his opinion, created such an unfair distribution of resources, and consequent uprisings.
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This work was Marx's Das Kapital. Marx died before he finished writing Das Kapital. This was partly because he became involved in organizing an international workers party. I mean, he didn't finish his book because he was busy organizing the International Workingmen's Party.
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