Монологи на английском языке с текстом и переводом. №86. Тема: Ископаемые виды топлива.

Morning, students. Today's lecture is on fossil fuels. So, to begin, what are they and why do we call them "fossil" fuels? Well, over the course of millions of years, the skeletons of prehistoric animals and the remains of ancient plants decay and change form. They turn into rock, coal, or oil that we then extract and use to create energy.
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The word "fossil" refers to these dead plants and animals. The problem is that continued use of these fuels may cause irreparable environmental damage to the Earth. What can be done? Firstly, we need to limit the use of fossil fuels. Secondly, we need to seek alternative energy sources. Why is the use of these fuels so risky?
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Well, there are many reasons, starting with serious air pollution caused by car exhaust fumes and the burning of coal. Some scientists think using fossil fuels also causes global warming. Heat-retaining gases enter the Earth's atmosphere and oceans whenever we burn fossil fuels. This leads to an increase in global temperatures.
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A warmer planet experiences major changes in weather patterns and natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, or droughts. Acid rain is also the result of harmful gases that build up in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel emissions. This rain damages and poisons agricultural crops and enters our drinking water supply. Another problem with our use of fossil fuels is oil spills from ocean tankers.
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These spills cause untold damage to marine life. Sea birds, fish, and mammals often become covered in oil. This means they lose their mobility and ability to avoid danger. They also cannot hunt for food and may die from starvation as a result. There are also other factors to consider. Fossil fuels will become more expensive and dangerous to extract as our supply lessens.
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Governments will have to spend millions on research to locate reserves. Extraction procedures become riskier when mines have to go deeper or oil rigs move further out to sea. It is clear that we should spend money on research to find alternative energy sources. Solar and wind power are examples of such energy sources.
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