Монологи на английском языке с текстом и переводом. №97. Тема: Институты внутри американского общества.

In this history course, we will focus on the history of American governments and institutions. I mean institutions within society, or parts of American society. The institutions include state, church, business enterprise, education, and family. We will look briefly at what each of these entail, and what aspect of life they are responsible for influencing and directing. Historians have come to understand that, worldwide, each king and president has caused changes in the lives of individuals.
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These changes included the ways they earned a living, how they acted in their social lives, and the ways they dressed, worshipped and went to school. It's important for you to understand that leaders had great control over the people they ruled. In past times, a king or leader had far more power and control over an individual's life, especially in terms of that person's freedom of choice. Again, kings and presidents influenced how a person earned a living, their social lives, dress, worship, and education.
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Please make sure you understand this about our history. From their understanding that leaders had such a great influence on each individual's life, historians became increasingly concerned with economic and social questions. They wanted to know why a certain economic or social event occurred, not simply what happened. Historians study past events the same way social scientists study present day events.
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As a result, the differences or imagined lines that divide the social sciences and historical studies have gradually become less distinct. What I am saying here is that historians and social scientists both study why something happens. The difference is that historians study events from the past, while social scientists study events in the present. I'm explaining this so that you won't be surprised during this semester when it seems like you're in a social studies course instead of a history course.
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As you will see, social factors strongly influence an individual's life. Society, of course, is made up of many individuals. Therefore, if some social factors are strongly affecting the individuals, this can strongly influence the society. In this course, we shall examine the development of the US through the study of the five main institutions I mentioned before. Again, these institutions are: state, church, business enterprise, education and family.
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Maybe we should clearly define the term institution. This can be rather difficult, but it can best be described as a formal organization designed to satisfy various needs in an individual's life. That's a long definition, so I'll repeat it for you. An institution is defined as a formal organization designed to satisfy various needs in an individual's life. For example, there is the state. The state is the means of satisfying the need for order and security.
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Then there are business institutions. Business institutions satisfy the need to produce and distribute the goods and services people require. Next is the church. The church looks after the religious instincts of the people. Fourth is education. Educational institutions seek to satisfy people's constant desire for betterment - to improve their lives. Finally, the family reflects stability and continuity in human relationships. Let's review this quickly again: State, for order and security.
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Business, for goods and services. Church, for religion. Education, for betterment. And family, for human relationships. It is important to understand that at any time in history, including the present, when you have discovered how people are educated, how they worship, how they earn their living, how they look after their families, and how they are governed, you have learned a lot about their lives. In this course, we will ask these basic questions in relation to the phases of American history.
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Of course, it is true that we know less about American education in 1741 than in 1941. However, for our purpose, this is not of great importance. What is important is that we ask the same questions about the 18th century education system in America as we ask about the 20th century system. We will examine religion, the family, business enterprise, and the state in the same manner.
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