Монологи на английском языке с текстом и переводом. №41. Тема: Идеальная диета и тренировка.

So, what should a person eat? Over the years, the "ideal diet" has seen many changes. For example, in 1968, the American Olympic menu included lots of meat, eggs, cereals, breads, desserts, fruit juices and soft drinks. Nowadays, trainers advise athletes to eat complex carbohydrates such as wholegrain breads and beans, foods low in fat such as low-fat yogurt and steamed fish, a wide variety of fruit and vegetables to avoid vitamin deficiency, and less protein such as red meat.
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If people are careful to eat a balanced, nutritious diet, they will improve their ability to carry on normal activities well into their later years. Remember - low fat, low protein and lots of fruit, grain, and vegetables. That's the diet to aim for. So, the first factor of functional longevity is nutrition. The second factor I want to talk about is exercise. We all have the image of someone working out at the gym, running on the treadmill, or lifting weights.
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Well, of course that is exercise, but in simple terms, exercise is nothing more than muscular usage - using muscles. There are two kinds of muscular usage: short-term usage like going up a flight of stairs and long-term usage like walking across the campus to a class. Even the act of picking up a textbook is a kind of exercise. Place the book in the palm of your hand and raise your hand. When you pick up your book, there is a muscular contraction. This is isotonic contraction.
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That's a bit technical, but don't let that word scare you. It's a simple concept. Isotonic contraction happens when there is actual movement of a body part. You will be using your biceps muscle to raise the book from the desk. Isometric muscle contraction, on the other hand, is when there is effort but no movement of a body part, for example if you're applying effort to biceps - maybe trying to show off your big biceps to your friend. Remember - isotonic involves movement, isometric, just contraction, no movement.
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