Монологи на английском языке с текстом и переводом. №85. Тема: Художественные произведения в стиле кубизм и сюрреализм.

I hope all of you had a chance to visit the university art museum. I guess I'll find out for sure when I check the art journals you handed in today. For those of you who did go there, I'd like to build on what you saw in the modern art exhibit there. Think about the works you saw in terms of what I'm talking about during this lecture.
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Hopefully, when you consider these concepts in relation to those paintings, you will have a much better idea of what I am talking about. In particular, I want to talk about cubism and surrealism, two very distinctive styles of modern art from the 20th century. At first, you might think these two styles are completely different. It's true that artists of these styles were concerned about different things, but they did share at least one common idea.
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They both focused on abstraction. Neither cubism nor surrealism was meant to show reality. That wasn't what they were for. Let's talk a little bit more about surrealism first. The object of surrealism - or the point of surrealism - is to meld, or put together everyday reality and imagination. The artist tried to blend hard or concrete objects and situations with dreamlike images or fantasy.
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Usually this led to striking or surprising works. There were a few surrealist works in the exhibit at the museum. Or maybe you've heard of Salvador Dali, probably the most famous surrealist of the 20th century. In our book, we can see one of Dali's works, called The Persistence of Memory. In this piece, The Persistence of Memory, you can see some clocks that look like they're melting over other objects.
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We see real world objects, clocks, in a dreamlike or fantasy state, melting. Now we turn to cubism. The interesting thing about cubist paintings is that they try to show their subjects from multiple angles at once. The artist is showing both sides of person's face at the same time, or the top and bottom of an object at the same time. Maybe you remember the painting of the cat from the museum.
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That was a cubist work. In that painting, you could see the cat from different angles and even the background of the painting, the things behind the cat, intersected by the main subject, the cat itself. Intersecting the background with the subject is a second aspect of cubism.
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Maybe it didn't look very much like a cat to some of you, but the artist was trying to go for that multiple-angle effect. Probably the best works of cubism were done by Pablo Picasso. We have a picture of Picasso's Woman in an Armchair in our book. You might not even recognize the woman in that one at first!
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